Updates in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Influenza: The Role of Antivirals in the 2020-2021 Season

Updates in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Influenza: The Role of Antivirals in the 2020-2021 Season

Online Course | Specialties: Family Medicine, Pediatrics, Primary Care
Released: 12/29/2020
Expires: 12/28/2021
Max Credits: 1.0
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Annelle B. Reed, MSN, CPNP
Pediatric Nurse Practitioner
Division of Pediatric Rheumatology
Children’s of Alabama
Birmingham, AL

Activity Planners
Amy Burdette, PhD
Manager, Educational Strategy & Content
Baltimore, MD

Samantha Gordon, MS
Accreditation Manager 
Baltimore, MD

Laura Nelsen
Director of Education
New York, NY 

Claudette Poole, MD
Assistant Professor
Associate Program Director, Pediatric Infectious
Diseases Fellowship Program
Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL
Learning Objectives
Upon completion, participants should be able to:

  • Apply strategies to assess and identify pediatric patients with or at risk of influenza who may benefit from antiviral therapies
  • Differentiate among antiviral agents for the treatment and/or chemoprophylaxis of influenza, including mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, benefits, limitations, and utility in the pediatric patient population 
  • Develop personalized treatment/prevention plans for pediatric patients with or at risk of influenza that consider available antiviral treatments, recent clinical evidence, and individual patient characteristics and preferences

Target Audience
This activity is intended for pediatric nurse practitioners.  
Statement of Need
Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality and creates a serious burden on children and their families, particularly among younger children who may have a high risk of complications. Delays in seeking medical care and diagnosis limit the opportunity to employ critical antiviral treatments and prevention strategies, consequently placing infected children at risk of potentially life-threatening complications and their families at risk of further infection. The continuous evolution of the influenza virus, paired with suboptimal vaccination rates and vaccine efficacy, underscore the need for antiviral therapies. The evolving data for current and emerging treatments, the recent approval of a novel antiviral, and limited guidance on influenza treatment create a challenging environment for providers to optimally incorporate the latest advances into influenza treatment and prevention plans. Nurse practitioners need to know the benefits, risks, and characteristics of available and emerging agents for influenza treatment and prophylaxis. 

Collaboration Statement
Med-IQ_Logo        NAPNAP Logo

Accreditation/Designation Statements
This program is accredited for 1.0 NAPNAP CE contact hour, of which 0.50 contain pharmacology (Rx) content, per the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Continuing Education Guidelines.
Medium/Method of Participation
This is a 1.0-credit CE activity. To receive credit, read the introductory CE material, complete all of the modules, and complete the evaluation, attestation, and post-test, answering at least 70% of the post-test questions correctly.

Initial Release Date: 12/29/2020
Expiration Date: 12/28/2021
Estimated Time to Complete This Activity: 1 hour

Disclosure Policy
In order to assure that all educational activities have balance, independence, and objectivity, NAPNAP requires that all faculty presenters complete a faculty declaration form and disclose to participants the presence of significant financial relationships with commercial companies whose products are discussed in their presentations. This disclosure requirement should extend for at least two years beyond the termination of any consultant or speaker arrangement. (Significant relationships include receiving research grants, consultancies, honoraria and travel, or other benefits from a company or having a self-managed equity interest in a company.) Should NAPNAP determine that a conflict of interest exists as a result of a financial relationship a planner, author or presenter or their spouse/partner may have, NAPNAP will resolve the conflict prior to offering the activity. Each faculty member’s conflict of interest will be resolved on an individual basis. Circumstances that create a conflict of interest as being those that occur when an individual has an opportunity to affect CE content about products or services of a commercial interest with which he/she has a financial relationship. NAPNAP will disqualify any individual who refuses to disclose relevant financial relationships from being a planning committee member, faculty or an author of the program. Disqualified individuals cannot have control of, or responsibility for, the development, management, presentation or evaluation of the educational activity.

Drug/Product Usage by Faculty
Off-label/unapproved drug uses or products are mentioned within this activity. 

Disclosure Statement
The content of this activity has been peer reviewed and has been approved for compliance. The faculty and contributors have indicated the following financial relationships, which have been resolved through an established COI resolution process, and have stated that these reported relationships will not have any impact on their ability to give an unbiased presentation.

Annelle B. Reed, MSN, CPNP, has indicated no real or apparent conflicts. 

Claudette Poole, MD
Spouse Salary: Therapy Brands
The peer reviewers and other activity planners have no financial relationships to disclose.
Statement of Evidence-Based Content
Educational activities that assist physicians in carrying out their professional responsibilities more effectively and efficiently are consistent with the ACCME definition of continuing medical education (CME). As an ACCME-accredited provider of CME, Med-IQ has a policy to review and ensure that all the content and any recommendations, treatments, and manners of practicing medicine in CME activities are scientifically based, valid, and relevant to the practice of medicine. Med-IQ is responsible for validating the content of the CME activities it provides. Specifically, (1) all recommendations addressing the medical care of patients must be based on evidence that is scientifically sound and recognized as such within the profession; (2) all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in CME in support or justification of a patient care recommendation must conform to generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis.

Med-IQ is not liable for any decision made or action taken in reliance upon the information provided through this activity. 
Contact Information
For CE questions please contact Alexandra Rojas the Education Specialist at NAPNAP via email at

For questions or comments about this activity, please contact Med-IQ. Call (toll-free) 866 858 7434 or email

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The information provided through this activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a nurse practitioner relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition.

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any medications, diagnostic procedures or treatments discussed in this publication should not be used by clinicians or other healthcare professionals without first evaluating their patients’ conditions, considering possible contraindications or risks, reviewing any applicable manufacturer’s product information and comparing any therapeutic approach with the recommendations of other authorities. 

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Acknowledgment of Commercial Support
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Genentech.
© 2020 Med-IQ, Inc.


Here are the key takeaways from this activity. Deeper insights and evidence, plus an opportunity to receive credit, are available at the "Continue" button below.

  • Vomiting and diarrhea are common presenting symptoms of influenza in young children
  • The differential diagnosis for influenza includes respiratory viruses, group A strep pharyngitis, bacterial pneumonia, mycoplasma infections, and histoplasmosis
  • Loss of taste or smell most likely indicates COVID-19 infection rather than seasonal influenza, but coinfection with influenza A or B viruses and SARS-CoV-2 can occur
  • Molecular assays are the most reliable diagnostic tests to evaluate for influenza
  • It is important to speak with families about administering the influenza vaccine to all children aged 6 months and older
  • Antiviral therapies should be used for the early treatment of influenza in patients of any age and for prophylaxis in children aged 3 months and older
  • Oseltamivir can be used as treatment in patients of any age with influenza and as prophylaxis in children aged 3 months or older
  • Zanamivir can be used as treatment in children aged 7 years and older with influenza or as prophylaxis in children aged 5 years and older; zanamivir should not be used in patients with asthma
  • Baloxavir can be used as treatment in children aged 12 years and older with influenza and as prophylaxis in children aged 12 years and older
  • Studies investigating baloxavir in children younger than 12 years with influenza have produced promising data
  • Antiviral treatment selection can be based on a number of clinical factors including frequency of dosing, possible adverse events, patient age, and patient comorbidities

Click “Continue” to proceed through this activity and/or receive credit. To receive credit and a certificate, you must complete all of the chapters in this activity.

Unless otherwise indicated, photographed subjects who appear within the content of this activity or on artwork associated with this activity are models; they are not actual patients or doctors.

The information provided through this activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition.

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