Time Is of the Essence: Assessment and Management Updates for Patients Presenting With Snake Envenomation
Charles J. Gerardo, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery
Duke University School of Medicine
Chief, Division of Emergency Medicine
Duke University Medical Center
Jaime Symowicz, PhD
Manager, Educational Strategy and Content
Kathryn Schaefer, MSN, RN, CPHRM
Senior Manager, Accreditation and Compliance
East Lansing, MI
Upon completion, participants should be able to:
- Recognize the effects of resulting symptoms of copperhead envenomation on patient daily functioning
- Evaluate the benefits and limitations of using crotaline Fab antivenom to treat pit viper envenomation
- Identify best practices for the assessment, treatment, and follow-up of patients presenting with pit viper envenomation
This activity is intended for emergency department physicians, intensive care unit physicians, hospitalists, surgeons, nurses, and pharmacists.
Statement of Need
Approximately 9,000 patients with snakebites present to emergency departments each year. The majority of these snakebites are from crotaline snakes (pit vipers), with envenomation occurring in about 75% of cases and with copperheads being responsible for about 50% of envenomation cases. Although symptoms are rarely life-threatening, these patients often experience significant pain and swelling, which inhibit their activities of daily living for about 1 to 3 weeks. Management practices for envenomation vary among medical centers, especially regarding the use of antivenom therapy, which has recently been associated with reduced limb disability and opioid use in patients with copperhead envenomation. To maximize recovery and improve the outcomes of patients presenting with pit viper envenomation, healthcare providers encountering these patients should be aware of available treatment algorithms, antivenom therapies, potential management strategies, and follow-up care recommendations.
Provided by Med-IQ.
Med-IQ is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Med-IQ designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Med-IQ is accredited with distinction as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.
This nursing activity has been approved for up to 1.0 contact hour.
Med-IQ is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. 1.0 contact hour (0.10 CEUs) of credit for pharmacists. ACPE #0476-0000-18-002-H01-P. This knowledge-based activity is designed for all pharmacists.
Physician assistants and other healthcare professionals who successfully complete the activity will receive a Statement of Participation indicating the maximum credits available.
Instructions to Receive Credit
To receive credit, read the introductory CME/CE/CPE material, listen to the audiocast, and complete the evaluation, attestation, and post-test, answering at least 70% of the post-test questions correctly.
Initial Release Date: June 20, 2018
Re-release Date: June 19, 2019
Expiration Date: June 18, 2020
Med-IQ requires any person in a position to control the content of an educational activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines “relevant financial relationships” as those in any amount occurring within the past 12 months, including those of a spouse/life partner, that could create a conflict of interest (COI). Individuals who refuse to disclose will not be permitted to contribute to this CME activity in any way. Med-IQ has policies in place that will identify and resolve COIs prior to this educational activity. Med-IQ also requires faculty to disclose discussions of investigational products or unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or devices regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration.
The content of this activity has been peer reviewed and has been approved for compliance. The faculty and contributors have indicated the following financial relationships, which have been resolved through an established COI resolution process, and have stated that these reported relationships will not have any impact on their ability to give an unbiased presentation.
Charles J. Gerardo, MD
Contracted research: BTG International Inc.
The peer reviewers and activity planners have no financial relationships to disclose.
Statement of Evidence-Based Content
Educational activities that assist physicians in carrying out their professional responsibilities more effectively and efficiently are consistent with the ACCME definition of continuing medical education (CME). As an ACCME-accredited provider of CME, it is the policy of Med-IQ to review and ensure that all the content and any recommendations, treatments, and manners of practicing medicine in CME activities are scientifically based, valid, and relevant to the practice of medicine. Med-IQ is responsible for validating the content of the CME activities it provides. Specifically, (1) all recommendations addressing the medical care of patients must be based on evidence that is scientifically sound and recognized as such within the profession; (2) all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in CME in support or justification of a patient care recommendation must conform to generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis.
Med-IQ is not liable for any decision made or action taken in reliance upon the information provided through this activity.
For questions or comments about this activity, please contact Med-IQ. Call (toll-free) 866 858 7434 or email email@example.com.
Microsoft Windows® 8, Windows 7
Mac OS 10.7 (Lion) or newer
Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.0 or later
Mozilla Firefox - latest version
Google Chrome - latest version
Apple Safari - latest version
Adobe Acrobat Reader® or Adobe Reader
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player 9 or later
For technical support, go to http://www.med-iq.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.support
Med-IQ fully complies with the legal requirements of the ADA and the rules and regulations thereof. If any participant in this educational activity is in need of accommodations, please contact Med-IQ at 443 543 5200.
The information provided through this activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition.
Privacy & Confidentiality
Med-IQ is committed to honoring your privacy and protecting any personal information you choose to share with us. For detailed information about our privacy notice, please visit: www.med-iq.com/privacy-statement/.
Acknowledgment of Commercial Support
This activity is supported by an educational grant from BTG International Inc.
© 2018 Med-IQ, Inc.
Unless otherwise indicated, photographed subjects who appear within the content of this activity or on artwork associated with this activity are models; they are not actual patients or doctors.